By Muhammad Suleman Khan & Wajahat Khalid
April 22, 2019
“For me the targeted killing of the Hazara community in Quetta is ethnic cleansing and that is why I had to take suo motu notice. We have no words to condemn the killings of Hazaras.”
– Saqib Nisar (Chief Justice of Pakistan, May 10, 2018)
The Hazara have been the victim of religious and ethnic persecution since the late 19th century. Some historians claim about half of Hazara population was either wiped out or subjected to forced deportation from Afghanistan – their country of origin – during the reign of Afghan ruler Abdur Rehman (1880-1901). During the second half of the 1990s, they were massacred both by the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. Their security improved temporarily after the US overthrew Taliban government in 2001. However, with the re-emergence of Taliban and other terrorist groups like Daesh in Afghanistan, the Hazara have come under renewed attacks. Hazara travelers are frequently intercepted on highways in Afghanistan, taken out of vehicles, and executed in cold blood.
Their systematic persecution in Afghanistan in early 1890s triggered a mass exodus of Hazara people to the neighboring countries of Iran and British India. In India, they mostly settled in Quetta where they found a welcoming environment. In 1904, the British Commander-in-Chief in India, Lord Kitchener, directed Major C. W. Jacob to raise a separate regiment of Hazara in Quetta. Officially known as the 106th Hazara Pioneers, the regiment was raised in the same year and later disbanded in 1933. In Balochistan, the Hazara lived in peace for over a century. However, the turn of the new millennium initiated a long period of persecution and violence against them in Balochistan. Due to their distinctive Central Asian facial features, the Hazara people stand out amongst other ethnic groups in Balochistan which in turn make them an easy prey for the terrorist groups.
Where did the Hazara Come From?
Despite the fact that the Hazara people have been living in Balochistan for over a century, they had largely been in oblivion and little known to their fellow Pakistanis during most parts of the previous century. However, in the years since 2000, their repeated persecution and killing by terrorist groups and subsequent coverage by the local and international media and human rights organizations have introduced them to many people at home as well as abroad, though many people in Pakistan still continue to wonder about the background and origin of what some call the “Chinese-looking” Pakistanis. The Hazara trace their geographical background in Afghanistan. Their traditional home is the dry mountainous region in central Afghanistan called ‘Hazarajat’ and they mostly adhere to Shiite Islam.
In his memoir Baburnam, Zaheeruddin Babar (1483-1530), the founder of Mughal Empire in India, has called the Hazara homeland in Afghanistan as “Hazaristan” and has discussed his battles with the Turkmen tribe of the Hazara in Panjshir valley in 1505 A.D. There are several theories about the ethnic origin of Hazara. According to Professor Grant Farr, a researcher on South Asia and Afghanistan, the Hazara people represent the last remnants of the Mongol dynasty that came through the area that is now Afghanistan in the 13th century. Farr believes the Hazara ancestors were the soldiers of Chagatai, son of Genghis Khan, who was installed as a leader in the region in the early 13th century. The Hazara’s Mongol origins can also be seen in their Central Asian facial features, including high cheekbones, sparse beards, and epicanthic eye folds which distinguish them from the surrounding ethnic groups.
Their Mongol ancestry is also evidenced in the Mongol words found in the Hazara people’s language – Hazaragi. A dialect of Dari Persian, Hazaragi contains extensive words and forms from Persian, Turkic, and Mongol. Similarly, James Minahan, another researcher, writes that the Hazara are a people of mixed Turkic and Mongol background, with the Mongol strain more evident in their physical appearance. The name “Hazara” originally referred to a Mongol fighting unit of 1000 men, but now it simply means the “mountain tribe”. A genetic study of 153 Hazara males in Quetta in 2017 found the Hazara people had genetic affinities with the Mongols and Kazakhs. Likewise, another study conducted earlier, showed two-thirds of the Hazara males carry the Y-chromosome associated with Genghis Khan.
Anti-Hazara Violence in Pakistan
In Pakistan, the Hazara people have been facing persecution for almost two decades. In Oct 1999, Sardar Nisar Ali, a Hazara notable and education minister of Balochistan, survived an assassination attempt in Quetta. The minister sustained injuries, while his driver was killed. This incident was the first spark to an unending period of systematic mass persecution and killing of Hazara people. The Hazara community claim over 2000 of their members have died in bombings, assassinations, and targeted killings since 2000. The bulk of the killings have occurred in and around the capital city of Quetta. And the dead include men, women, children, and even infants. On 20 Mar 2018, the National Commission for Human Rights (NCHR) reported that 509 Hazaras were killed from Jan 2012 to Dec 2017 alone. Titled “Understanding the agonies of ethnic Hazaras”, the report was based on official figures provided by the Balochistan government.
Thousands of Hazara have left Pakistan for other countries to escape the seemingly indefinite persecution. In Nov 2017, a number of senators including Farhatullah Babar and Rozi Khan Kakar censured the government for failing to stop the persistent killings of the Hazara community members. The Senate was informed that about 70,000 Hazaras have taken refuge in Australia alone after fleeing Pakistan. Senator Farhatullah Babar likened the Hazara of Pakistan to the Rohingya of Burma because both were fleeing their home countries in desperation.
The Hazara people have faced deadly attacks both in Afghanistan and Pakistan from a number of Sunni extremist groups including the Taliban, Al-Qaeda, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, and Daesh, etc. During the Taliban rule of Afghanistan in the 1990s, the Hazara were massacred both by Taliban and Al-Qaeda. While in Pakistan, they have mostly been targeted by the extremist group Lashkar-e-Jhangvi. Lately, Daesh also has claimed attacks on the Hazara in Balochistan.
Hazara in the Afghan Civil War
The Hazara were part of the non-Pashtun Northern Alliance that resisted the Taliban rule in Afghanistan. The Taliban and its allies like Al-Qaeda considered the Hazaras heretics and enemies of Islam. On May 25, 1997, Taliban seized control of the northern Afghan city of Mazar Sharif – the last stronghold of the Northern Alliance. The Taliban immediately started implementing their version of Shariah by closing down schools and offices and disarming the local population. According to Pakistani journalist and author, Ahmed Rashid, a squabble broke between the Taliban and a group of Hazaras on May 28, 1997, as the latter refused to be disarmed. First Mazar’s Hazara and then the rest of the population rose in revolt. In 15 hours of intense fighting, some 600 Taliban were massacred and around 1000 were captured at the airport as they tried to flee. The uprising also led to Taliban losing many of their captured territories in the north and around Kabul.
However, the Taliban returned with a vengeance and retook Mazar Sharif in August in the following year. The Taliban fighters went on a killing spree in the city, targeting non-Pashtun inhabitants particularly the Hazaras. According to reports by the UN and ICRC, around 5000-6000 people were massacred in the two days of massacre. A report in Nov 1998 by the Human Rights Watch observed the following:
“The Hazaras, a Persian-speaking Shi’a ethnic group, were particularly targeted, in part because of their religious identity. During the house-to-house searches, scores and perhaps hundreds of Hazara men and boys were summarily executed, apparently to ensure that they would be unable to mount any resistance to the Taliban…. The killings of Hazara men and boys appear to have been carried out largely in reprisal for the killing of several thousand Taliban soldiers after a failed attempt by the Taliban to take the city from May to July 1997. Of these, some 2,000 were reportedly summarily executed….. In speeches given at mosques throughout Mazar, the Taliban governor, Mulla Manan Niazi, also blamed Hazaras for the 1997 killings.”
Earlier in August 1997, the Taliban used food as ‘weapon of war’ by imposing a blockade of the Hazara-dominated Bamiyan valley in the Hazarajat, and forcing the inhabitants into starvation. Relief convoys and humanitarian aid were also denied access to the city that housed the giant statues of Buddha. Ahmed Rashid writes in the Taliban that the Hazara and Taliban were poles apart in their attitude towards women. Taliban were particularly irked by Hazara women who played significant roles in political, social, and military life. Many of them fought alongside their men in the battles. While the Taliban received international condemnation for their treatment of women, the Hazara’s Unity Party had 12 women members in its executive council.
In Afghanistan, the anti-Hazara hatred, based on faith and ethnicity, predates the Taliban or the Afghan jihad. The aversion to Hazara ethnicity and faith existed in Afghanistan since at least the early 1890s. However, it intensified during the brutal civil war that raged under the Taliban. During the 1990s, a number of Pakistan-based sectarian extremist groups such as the Lashkar-e-Jhangvi also joined the Taliban militants in Afghanistan. They fought alongside the Taliban against the Northern Alliance which also included the Shiite Hazaras.
The US invasion dispersed all shades of jihadists from Afghanistan, and with that the anti-Hazara hatred was exported to the Balochistan province that has a sizeable population of Hazara people. The Pakistani Hazara, who had been living in peace in Quetta for most parts of the 20th century, began to experience violence inflicted by the extremist groups that had just returned from fighting the Hazara in Afghanistan. In 2011, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi claimed that it had participated in the war in Afghanistan and killed what it called the Hazara infidels. Through a proclamation, the Lashkar-e-Jhangvi declared that their jihadists would kill the Hazara people in every corner of Pakistan, the way they killed them in Afghanistan.
Following are some of the extremist groups that have claimed terrorist attacks against the Hazara in Balochistan.
Founded in 1996, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ) is inspired by anti-Shiite salafist ideology. It is believed to have affiliations with similar extremist groups such as TTP, Sipah Sahaba, Harkatul Jihad-E-Islami (HUJI), Jundallah, and Daesh. The LeJ assisted and fought alongside the Taliban against the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan. Members of LeJ and SSP reportedly played an active part in the massacres of Shiites in Afghanistan in late 1990s. Many LeJ fugitives were given sanctuary by the Taliban regime. In July 2011, the LeJ’s Balochistan chapter issued the following proclamation:
“All Shi’ites are worthy of killing. We will rid Pakistan of unclean people. Pakistan means land of the pure and the Shi’ites have no right to live in this country. We have the edict and signatures of revered scholars, declaring Shi’ites infidels. Just as our fighters have waged a successful jihad against the Shi’ite Hazaras in Afghanistan, our mission in Pakistan is the abolition of this impure sect and its followers from every city, every village, and every nook and corner of Pakistan. As in the past, our successful jihad against the Hazaras in Pakistan and, in particular, in Quetta, is ongoing and will continue in the future. We will make Pakistan the graveyard of the Shi’ite Hazaras and their houses will be destroyed by bombs and suicide bombers. We will only rest when we will be able to fly the flag of true Islam on this land of the pure. Jihad against the Shi’ite Hazaras has now become our duty.”
The Hazara have faced hundreds of terrorist attacks in Balochistan since 2001. Most of these attacks have been claimed by the LeJ. The worst sectarian violence in Pakistan’s history came in early 2013 when LeJ carried out two terrorist attacks against the Hazara in Quetta. The Hazara neighborhood of Alamdar Road was targeted by twin suicide attacks that initially left 93 people dead on Jan 10, 2013. Later, the death toll crossed 100 as more injured people died at hospitals. The federal government responded by dismissing Balochistan’s provincial government and imposing governor’s rule.
However, the dismissal of the provincial administration could not prevent the LeJ from carrying out further attacks. A month later, on Feb 16, the group perpetuated yet another equally devastating attack in Hazara Town, killing 110 people including women and children. The attack left over 200 people injured. Besides, the LeJ also has targeted police personnel assigned on the security of the Hazara people.
In July 2015, the LeJ ringleader, Malik Ishaq, was killed along with his 13 accomplices in a gunfight with police in the Punjab city of Muzaffargarh. Several other senior LeJ leaders such as Usman Saifullah Kurd and Dawood Badini had previously been arrested and sentenced to death by an anti-terrorism court in Quetta on Nov 8, 2003 for masterminding two terrorist attacks that killed 65 Hazaras in Quetta. The detention of Kurd and Badini brought the Hazara killing in Balochistan to a halt. However, both Kurd and Badini managed to escape from a high-security prison in Quetta in Jan 2008. According to English daily The News:
“Both the LeJ men managed to escape under mysterious circumstances on January 18, 2008 after breaking the jail located in the high-security zone of Quetta Cantonment where no one can go without a pass. A subsequent report by the Minority Support of Pakistan (MSP), a non-partisan NGO which is devoted to building advocacy for the minority rights, alleged that all signs of escape pointed to orchestration from the powerful groups. The report added that the night Usman Kurd and Dawood Badin had escaped along with their third companion Shafiqur Rehman Rind [who was arrested in 2003], the Hazara guards were relieved from duty and the roster was abruptly changed by the jail bosses.”
Later, Usman Saifullah Kurd was killed by the Frontier Corps (FC) in Feb 2015 in Quetta. Pakistani security analyst Amir Mir wrote that Kurd’s killing was a major blow to LeJ as it broke the back of LeJ in Balochistan. Nevertheless, the LeJ continues to carry out attacks against the embattled Hazara community. And the law enforcement agencies have largely been ineffective in preventing the attacks despite the fact that the LeJ has officially been declared a terrorist group in Pakistan.
In a fresh blow to the government’s claim of cracking down on terrorist groups, the Balochistan government released on 10 April 2019 the LeJ leader in Balochistan, Ramzan Mengal. Mengal had publicly threatened to wipe out the entire Hazara community from Balochistan in the past. Two days after his release, a bombing incident targeted Hazara vegetable vendors in the Quetta’s suburb, killing 18 people including 8 Hazaras. Terrorist group Daesh claimed responsibility for the bombing through its official news channel Amaq. The LeJ has worked both with the Al-Qaeda and Daesh in Balochistan against the Shiite Hazara.
The Islamic State (Daesh):
Daesh has targeted the Hazara people both in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In Afghanistan, the Hazara have come under heavy attacks by Daesh and its affiliates. Inspired by an extreme version of salafist ideology, Daesh was originally founded as Jamaatul Tawheed wal Jihad by a Jordanian salafist Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi in 1999. On 26 Jan 2015, Daesh announced the formation of its chapter in what it called the ‘Khorasan’ district. The Khorasan is an imaginary region drawn up by the jihadists that include Pakistan and its surrounding areas. Hafiz Saeed Khan, a former TTP pioneer, was made the chief of Khorasan chapter.
Worries about a Daesh presence in Pakistan came to surface as early as 2014. The Balochistan government warned the federal government through a letter, dated 31st Oct 2014, that the Daesh had offered some elements of LeJ and ASWJ to join hands in Pakistan. According to the letter, the terror outfit had formed a “ten-member strategic planning wing” that aimed to plan terrorist attacks against military personnel participating in the Operation Zarb-e-Azb, and seizure of important government installations. The letter also quoted Daesh claiming to have gained 10-12 thousand followers from Hangu and Kurram Agency. On 12 Apr 2019, Daesh claimed responsibility for a bombing in Quetta that killed 18 people including 8 Hazaras. The group’s anti-Hazara attacks have been deadlier in Afghanistan where it has repeatedly targeted and killed many of them.
Tehreek Taliban Pakistan (TTP):
Like other extremist groups, the TTP also has claimed responsibility for attacks on Hazara. On 3 Sep 2010, a suicide bombing targeted a Hazara religious procession in Quetta city, killing at least 73 and injuring 160. The procession was struck in a busy commercial area of the city. The TTP claimed responsibility for the attack. Similarly, On 12 April 2019, a bomb blast killing and injuring several, many of which were Hazaras was claimed both by the TTP and Daesh. The TTP is believed to have supportive links with the following militant groups:
- Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ)
- Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)
- Haqqani Network
- Harkatul Jihad-E-Islami (HUJI)
- Jaish-e-Mohammad (JEM)
- Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM)
Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat (ASWJ):
Formerly known as SSP, ASWJ has been involved in anti-Shiite hate campaign for years. Though a proscribed group in Pakistan, ASWJ takes out public rallies, calling for violence against Shiites. It also has affiliations with mainstream religious political parties like Jamaat-e-Islam and Jamiat Ulema Islam. During the general elections in July 2018, the Election Commission of Pakistan allowed many ASWJ leaders, including Ramzan Mengal, to contest elections. The move incited fears amongst the Hazara people because they believe ASWJ is a political cover for the LeJ. Talking to Al-Jazeera, Agha Raza, a Hazara politician, said the ASWJ wants to reach the Parliament so as to protect the killings carried out by the LeJ.
The Hazara have been suffering from high-intensity violence. The HRW issued a report on the Hazara persecution on 29 June 2014 which revealed some horrifying figures. Titled “We are the walking dead”, the report said that approximately one-quarter of all the Shiites killed in sectarian violence across Pakistan in 2012 belonged to the Hazara community in Balochistan. In 2013, nearly half of Shiites killed in Pakistan were Hazara. The Hazara community accuses the provincial authorities for willful negligence towards their security. According to the HRW report, there is no evidence to suggest that the government is backing the terrorists, but very little has been done so far to contain the anti-Hazara violence.
Due to continued attacks, the Hazara have been confined to two ghettos in the eastern and western parts of Quetta city. All the entry points to their ghettos are manned by the FC personnel. Outcast and marginalized from the rest of the city’s population, the Hazara as a community has plunged socially and economically. Many of their businessmen have been killed, and their businesses shut in the main city. Restrictions on their movement have curtailed their economic opportunities as they mostly remain confined to their guarded areas. Thousands of their members have already left Pakistan to seek refuge in Europe, Australia, and other countries. The police have repeatedly demonstrated their inability to deal with the terrorist attacks on Hazara people.
Aslam Raisani, former chief minister of Balochistan, once mocked the Hazara victims of a terrorist attack by saying that it was not a big deal if 40 people were killed in a province whose population was in millions. He also said that he would send a truckload of tissue papers to the victims so that they could wipe their tears. Raisani’s government was dismissed in Jan 2013 following a massive terrorist bombing that killed over 100 Hazaras in Quetta.
Is inaction affordable?
Khaled Ahmed, Pakistani journalist and author, wrote in the Newsweek on 11 Mar 2014 that “If there ever was a sign of the demise of the Pakistani state, it is the killing of the Hazara community of Quetta.” Khaled Ahmed’s statement serves as a reminder about the gravity of the situation. Having been exhausted by the statements of condolence and sympathy that come after every deadly attack, the Hazara of Pakistan really need protection now. The government must dismantle the terror infrastructure in Balochistan that perpetuate anti-Hazara violence with impunity. Those involved in carrying out terrorist attacks and inciting violence against the community should be held accountable under the anti-terrorism laws. The National Action Plan, drawn up with much resolve and commitment back in 2014, has largely remained buried in the papers. It must be implemented in letter and spirit. It is the constitutional, legal, and moral responsibility of the State of Pakistan to protect the lives of its Hazara citizens who have grown tired of digging mass graves and burying their loved ones. No excuse whatsoever can justify the government’s repeated failures to prevent the terrorist attacks against the Hazara.
Security arrangements like ghettoization and individual security escorts for select Hazara people are unlikely to address the problem as long as the terrorist groups continue to operate in the province. The terror infrastructure must be uprooted permanently and the sources of support and finances for terrorism must be chocked. Besides, at a time when the country is under heightened international scrutiny for the problem of terrorism, a persistent killing of a minority community in Balochistan does not augur well for the government. The Foreign Office might find it challenging, if not possible, to convince the international community that Pakistan is serious in tackling all shades of terrorism indiscriminately, despite the fact that Pakistan has suffered heavily, in terms of human cost and financial losses, in the war against terrorism and extremism. Undoubtedly, it is time to put empty statements to rest and act decisively against the terrorists.
The Blood Trail
Below is a timeline of the terrorist attacks on the Hazara community in Balochistan since 1999.
1999: On 06 October 1999, unidentified gunmen ambushed the vehicle of Sardar Nisar Ali, a Hazara notable and education minister of Balochistan, in Quetta. The minister survived with injuries but his driver was killed. The attack marked the beginning of a systematic campaign of violence against the Hazara community of Quetta.
2001: Armed assailants ambushed a Suzuki pickup carrying members of Hazara community on Pudgali junction on Kirani Road in Quetta on 9 Feb 2001, killing eight people.
2003: Armed motorcyclists kill 13 Hazara police cadets and injure 8 more on Sariab Road in Quetta. The trainee cadets were returning home from police training school when their Toyota pickup was intercepted by terrorists. Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ) claimed responsibility for the attack.
2003: On 4 July 2003, in one of the deadliest sectarian terrorism in Pakistan’s history, three terrorists armed with AK-47s, grenades, and suicide vests stormed the main Hazara Shiite mosque on the Prince Road in Quetta city. The terrorists opened indiscriminate firing on worshippers who had gathered for the afternoon Friday prayers. A third one finally blew up his suicide vest. A total of 58 people including children were killed, and around 200 were wounded. Two bombs were also planted outside the mosque which were later diffused by the bomb disposal squad.
2004: The religious procession of Ashura was attacked in Quetta on 2 Mar 2004 which left over 40 people dead and around 100 injured. The terrorists first threw grenades into the crowd and then started indiscriminate firing as the procession reached the heart of Quetta city. Most of the victims were Shiite Hazaras. LeJ claimed responsibility for the deadly attack. It is noteworthy that the procession route had been declared safe by the government previously.
2008: On 30 May 2008, six young men belonging to Shiite community were shot dead and four others wounded in an ambush by terrorists on the Samungli Road in Quetta. Baloch insurgent group BLA claimed responsibility, with its spokesman claiming that the boys were spying for the intelligence agencies against the insurgents. A spokesman for the BLA claimed responsibility for the attack. A majority of the murdered boys
2008: On 22 Sept 2008, three Hazara tribesmen were shot dead at two different places in Quetta. Armed motorcyclists gunned down Yousuf Ali and Mohammad Alam who were going to their homes in the Hazara Town. In another incident on the same day, gunmen killed another Hazara Zaman Ali in the Munawar Colony in Quetta.
2009: On 5 Jan 2019, terrorists killed two Hazaras on Kirani Road in Quetta despite tight security arrangements due to Muharram. The police identified the deceased as Muhammad Essa and Muhammad Khan.
2009: On 14 Jan 2009, unidentified assailants killed four Policemen, including a deputy superintendent of Police, in a shootout on Sariab Road in Quetta. Three of the victims were Hazaras. LeJ claimed responsibility.
2009: On 26 Jan 2009, terrorists assassinated Hussain Ali Yousafi, chairman of Hazara Democratic Party, on Quetta’s busy Jinnah Road. LeJ claimed responsibility for the assassination.
2009: On 2 Feb 2009, unidentified gunmen kidnapped a senior UNHCR official John Solecki from Chaman Housing Society in Quetta. His driver, a Hazara, was killed during the kidnapping. Solecki was an American national.
2009: On 4 March 2009, Four Hazara laborers and their Punjabi colleague were killed by unknown gunmen on Eastern Bypass in Quetta.
2009: On 11 March 2009, nnknown gunmen shot two Hazara people dead on Arbab Karam Khan Road in Quetta.
2009: On 11 March 2009, three Hazaras were attacked on the Spini Road in Quetta by unknown gunmen. The victims escaped unhurt; however, a passerby was injured by a bullet.
2009: On 12 April 2009, a person identified as Ghulam Hussein was killed while another man sustained critical wounds when unknown armed men opened fire at them on Kirani Road. Both were Hazara.
2009: On 12 October 2009, terrorists killed Ashraf Ali, chief inspector of mines in Balochistan, on Sariab Road in Quetta. Ali belonged to the Hazara tribe.
2009: On 15 October 2009, Muhammad Asif, a Hazara, was shot dead in his shop at Jinnah Road Quetta. Asif was the brother of Musa Jaffari, a senior police officer in Balochistan.
2009: Mehmud Ali, a young Hazara boy, was killed by terrorists on the Quetta-Karachi highway while another boy Mohammad Yousuf was injured in the same incident.
2010: In March 2010, two Hazaras identified as Ghulam Rasool and Muhammad Ali were killed in Akhtarabad in Quetta. Both were day-laborers.
2010: In March 2010, Shabbir Hussain, a Hazara shopkeeper, was killed by armed men while he was working in his shop in the Hazar Ganji area.
2010: In March, Muhammad Ali, Ghulam Raza and Ramzan Ali who were vegetable vendors were killed in the Hazar Ganji area. All were Hazara Shiites.
2010: In May 2010, a young Hazara boy, Ali Murtaza, was shot dead on Sirki road.
2010: On 3 Sept 2010, a suicide bomber hit a religious procession of Hazaras on Meezan Chowk in Quetta, killing 59 people and injuring over 200. Tehreek Taliban Pakistan (TTP) claimed responsibility for the attack, saying the attack was a revenge for the death of Sunni scholars allegedly killed by Shiites (without giving details).
2010: On 28 Sept 2010, a Hazara businessman, Muhammad Ali, was found dead in Killi Qambarani in Quetta. He was kidnapped for ransom a month before the incident. His family paid 20 million in ransom two days before he was found dead.
2010: In Oct 2010, four Hazaras were abducted and killed for ransom. Haji Ali Akbar, who was the owner of Al-Abbas store was captured along with his son, bodyguard and an employee and later killed.
2010: In Nov 2010, Haji Idrees, the owner of Barkat medical store in Quetta, was kidnapped and his bodyguard Mohammad Ali was killed.
2010: In December 2010, three Hazaras, including a four-year-old girl, were killed in a terrorist attack on Arbab Karam Khan Road in Quetta.
2011: In May 2011, eight people, including children, were killed in a rocket and gun attack which targeted Hazaras in the early morning in a park. After the rockets were fired, armed men on vehicles shot at people and fled. Lashkar-e-Jhangavi claimed responsibility for the attack.
2011: In May 2011, two Hazara policemen, Mohammad Musa, and Ishaq Ali were shot dead on Sipni Road while on their way home.
2011: In June 2011, a former Pakistani Olympian and deputy director of the Pakistan Sports Board, Abrar Hussain, was shot by armed men on motorcycles as he was returning home. He belonged to the Hazara tribe.
2011: In June 2011, armed terrorists attacked a bus carrying Hazara pilgrims from Iran, killing three and injuring 11 others in the Hazar Ganji area of Quetta.
2011: In July 2011, eleven Hazaras, including one woman, were killed when a Suzuki van was attacked on Spini road in Quetta.
2011: In Sept 2011, thirteen people, including four women, were killed in a suicide bombing attack on Eid day. The target was the morning Eid prayers, however, the vehicle carrying the suicide bomber exploded a few yards before the target due to a collision.
2011: In Sept 2011, twenty-six people were killed when a bus carrying pilgrims from Quetta was attacked by armed men in Mastung. The attackers stopped the bus and shot the victims one by one.
2011: In Sept 2011, three Hazaras were killed when gunmen attacked a van. Three others, including a child, sustained injuries.
2011: In October 2011, Fourteen vegetable vendors were killed when gunmen attacked a van going to a vegetable market in Quetta.
2012: On 25 January 2012, Walayat Hussain (FIA inspector), Abid Hussain Nazish (artist) and Mohammad Anwar Hussain (govt. official) were gunned down near Mecongi Road, Quetta. The three were going home in a car when assailants on a motorcycle opened fire on them with automatic weapons in a street.
2012: On 26 March 2012, Ejaz Hussain and Ali Asghar were killed on Sabzar Road when unknown men opened fire on them. Both were Hazara.
2012: On 28 March 2012, two people, identified as Jawad Ahmed and Khadem Hussain, belonging to the Hazara community, were injured while their three companions escaped unhurt when the car they were riding was attacked by a group of armed militants near Dasht area in Mastung District.
2012: On 29 March 2012, at least five Hazaras were killed and seven others injured when unidentified militants opened fire on their car on Spiny Road in Quetta in a suspected sectarian attack.
2012: On 3 April 2012, two Hazaras, Ali Akbar and Ali Raza, were killed when unknown men opened fire on two shops on Meconghy Road, Quetta.
2012: On 9 April 2012, Mama Karim, Mohammad Hassan, Saeed Ahmed, Qurban Ali, Nadir Ali, and Shabir Hussain were killed when armed assailants opened fire at a shoe shop on Prince Road, Quetta. All were Hazaras.
2012: On 14 April 2012, three men were killed when armed men on a motorbike opened fire at a tea shop. Six Hazaras were killed when armed men ambushed a taxi on Brewery Road, Quetta. The victims were on their way to Killi Ibraimzai from Hazara Town.
2012: In April 2012, unidentified gunmen on a motorcycle opened fire on a tire shop situated at Quarry road, killing a businessman, Salman Ali Hazara.
2012: On 21 April 2012, two Hazara brothers, Baban Ali and Hussain Ali, were gunned down on Brewery Road, Quetta while they were on their way to a bazaar from Hazara Town.
2012: In May 2012, Mohammad Ali was killed by unknown gunmen while working in his tire shop.
2012: In May 2012, two Hazaras, Mohammad Tahir, and Mohammad Qadir were killed outside the passport office on Joint Road when armed assailants opened fire and fled.
2012: In June 2012, fourteen people, including two policemen and a woman, were killed and many others injured in a suicide attack on a bus carrying pilgrims returning from Iran. The suicide bomber was in a private car which hit the bus in the Hazar Ganji area of Quetta.
2012: In August 2012, three people of the Hazara community were killed and three others injured when gunmen opened fire on a taxi going to Marriabad from Hazara Town on Spiny Road in Quetta.
2012: In August 2012, three people going to Hazara Town in a rickshaw were killed when gunmen on a motorbike opened fire on them and escaped. Out of the three, two were identified as Ghulam Hussain and Khadim Hussain
2012: In Sept 2012, gunmen on motorcycles shot dead seven Hazara Shia Muslims in two separate incidents.
2012: In Oct 2012, four Hazara men were shot dead in an attack on a scrap shop. Men on motorcycles opened fire on the shop in Kabarhi Market on Sirki Road and fled after killing Ata Ali, Muhammad Ibrahim, Ghulam Ali, and Syed Awiz.
2012: On Nov 6, 2012, three members of the Hazara community were gunned down while two others sustained injuries when assailants on a motorcycle opened fire on a yellow taxi cab on Spinny Road in the provincial capital. DIG Police Hamid Shakeel told The Express Tribune “The victims were on their way to Hazara Town when the cab they were traveling in was attacked. Three people died on the spot, while the injured were rushed to Bolan Medical College Teaching Hospital”
2012: On Dec 4, 2012, a man was killed and his brother injured when they came under fire on Airport Road near Askari Park here on Tuesday evening. The victims belonged to the Shia Hazara community. Ashfaq Hussain and Altaf Hussain, a police constable, were going home on a motorcycle when they were fired upon by motorcyclists chasing them. A man was killed and his brother injured when they came under fire on Airport Road near Askari Park.
2013: On 10 Jan 2013, at least 80 people were killed and over 120 injured in an attack targeting Hazara Shiites at Alamdar Road in Quetta late in the evening. A suicide bomber blew himself up inside a snooker club on Alamdar Road. When people came to retrieve the bodies and rescue the injured, a second more powerful blast occurred, killing more people including some police officers. Lashkar-i-Jhangvi claimed responsibility for the deadly attack.
2013: On 29 Jan 2013, two Police constables, identified as Ali Dad Hazara and Shamir Baloch, were shot dead on Sabzal road of Quetta.
2013: On 16 Feb 2013, a remote-controlled bomb targeting Hazara Shiites killed 84 people including women and children and wounded more than 200 in Quetta.
2013: On 22 July 2013, two Shia Hazaras were killed when unidentified militants opened fire at a taxi on Shahrah-e-Iqbal Road in Quetta, the provincial capital of Balochistan
2013: On 24 November 2013, a Hazara man, identified as Arif Hussain, was shot dead in a targeted sectarian attack on Kirani Road in Quetta.
2014: On 12 April 2014, two bus passengers belonging to Shia Hazara community were killed in an incident of target killing on Sariab Road in Quetta
2014: On 29 July 2014, two Shia Hazara persons, identified as Zakir Hussain and Ghulam Hussain, were killed by unidentified assailants in Sabzal road area of Quetta
2014: On 23 October 2014, nine members of the Hazara community were shot dead in sectarian target killings in different parts of Quetta (Quetta District), the provincial capital of Balochistan. Eight of them were killed in a single incident, which took place early in the morning in the Hazarganji area. The men were gunned down by unidentified militants as they were about to leave the area’s vegetable market. An hour after the Hazarganji killings, armed men on a motorbike shot dead another member of the Hazara community in Kirani Road area.
2015: On 12 May 2015, a man belonging to the Hazara community was killed and five others, including two Policemen, were injured, apparently in a targeted attack at Kasi Road of Quetta.
2015: On 25 May 2015, at least three Hazara Shias were killed and nine others were injured when unidentified militants opened fire at two separate buildings on M.A. Jinnah Road in Quetta.
2015: A local trader, identified as Anwar Ali Hazara, was shot dead by unidentified militants on Fatima Jinnah Road in Quetta. Following the attack, members of the Hazara community staged a protest against the killing.
2015: Two Shia Hazaras, identified as Mohammad Arif and Mohammad Hussain, were shot dead, while another, Mohammad Essa, was injured when unidentified militants opened fire at their cloth shop in a shopping plaza in Mecongi road area in Quetta. No outfit claimed responsibility for the attack
2015: At least five Hazara Shias were killed when unidentified armed assailants opened fire at them in Bacha Khan Chowk area Quetta.
2015: Unidentified militants shot dead a Shia Hazara, identified as Ghulam Raza, while he was on his way home in Quetta.
2015: On 7 Nov 2015, armed assailants killed two Hazara Shias in Spiny road in Quetta.
2016: On 28 June 2016, two policemen belonging to Hazara community, identified as driver Muhammad Ali and guard Muhammad Ayub, were killed when unidentified militants opened fire at a Police mobile van near Hazara Ganj area of Quetta.
2016: On 1 August 2016, two Hazara Shias, identified as Ghulam Nabi and Mohammad Nabi, were killed in a targeted attack near the Government Boys Degree College while they on their way home on Sariab Road of Quetta
2016: On 4 October 2016, at least four Hazara Shia women were killed and one injured when unidentified armed assailants opened fire on a bus on Kirani Road near Pud Gali Chowk area of Quetta
2017: On 6 January 2107, unidentified assailants shot and injured five Hazara Shias in a suspected sectarian attack community on Spiny Road in the Qila Mubarak area of Quetta.
2017: On 4 June 4 2107, a man and his younger sister belonging to the Shia Hazara community were shot dead in the Spiny Road area of Quetta.
2017: On 10 Sept 2017, unidentified assailants opened fire at a vehicle coming from Chaman in Kuchlak area of Quetta in the evening, leaving five Shia Hazara persons dead.
2017: On 9 Oct 2017, at least five Shia Hazara persons were killed and one other was seriously injured when unidentified assailants opened fire at their vehicle on Kasi road in Gawalmandi area of Quetta.
2017: On 22 December 2017, two persons belonging to the Hazara community were killed and two others were injured when they were targeted near Western Bypass in Nakhailabad area of Quetta.
2018: In April 2018, two people from the ethnic Hazara community were shot dead in a sectarian attack in southwestern Pakistan. Two members of the community were killed and another was injured in an attack in the Western Bypass area of the city last Sunday. A shopkeeper was gunned down on April 18 while another Hazara man was killed at the beginning of the month.
2018: Two men belonging to the Hazara community were killed, while a third was injured in an incident of firing in Quetta’s Western Bypass area on Sunday.
2019: On 12 April 2019, at least 20 people were killed and 48 injured in a blast believed to be targeting members of the Hazara community in Quetta’s Hazarganji market. Among the dead, 8 belonged to the Hazara community. Daesh claimed responsibility for the attack.
- Philips, David J., “Peoples on the move: Introducing the nomads of the world”, p. 267.
- Minahan, James, “Encyclopedia of stateless nations”, p. 728.
- Farr, Grant, “Disappearing people? Indigenous groups and ethnic minorities in South Asia”, p. 155
- Aron Edwards, “war”, Beginner`s guides, Chapter: what is war, 2016.
- Marc Sageman, “Misunderstanding terrorism”, Chapter 4, Page 121-162, University of Pennsylvania,
- Philadelphia, September 2, 2016, Page. 1-122.
- Robert Spencer, “The Complete Infidel’s Guide to ISIS”,2015
- Anthony J. Masys, “Disaster Forensics: Understanding Root Cause and Complex Causality”, springer,
- 2016, page.168.
- Joseph Spark, “Atrocities Committed By ISIS in Syria & Iraq: ISIL/Islamic State/Daesh”, 2014.
- Michael Glint, “Can a War with Isis Be Won? Isil/Islamic State/Daesh”, 2014
- Charles Lister, “Profiling the Islamic state"13, November 2014, Brookings Doha Centre Analysis paper,
- page 3-36
- http://www.eurasiacenter.org/publications/ISIS_Briefing_Colin_Tucker.pdf. Retrieved on 25 November,
- Jacinta Carroll, “COUNTERING DAESH EXTREMISM EUROPEAN AND ASIAN
- RESPONSES”,2016, page 1-270
- Tariq Parvez, “The Islamic State in Pakistan”, United States Institute of Peace, 2016
- Tariq Parvez, “The Islamic State in Pakistan”, Department of Humanities, Social and Political
- UN Human Rights Committee, “The Nature of the General Legal Obligation Imposed on States Parties to the Covenant (art. 2),” General Comment No. 31, UN Doc. CCPR/C/74/CRP.4/Rev.6, March 29, 2004, para. 8.